Planetary Simulant Database

Free Resource for Regolith Simulant Information


Mineral Abundance (%)
Plagioclase An60-100 43.34
Glasses 50.95
Other 5.71

Bulk Chemistry

Bulk chemistry is not available for the whole OB-1 simulant, but is for the Shawmere Anorthosite component. A metals analysis of the olivine slag component was reported in M. Battler’s thesis, but is not reproduced here.

Oxide Shawmere Anorthosite
SiO2 48.4
TiO2 0.08
Al2O3 31.60
Fe2O3 1.33
MgO 0.35
CaO 15.4
Na2O 2.47
K2O 0.08
MnO <0.01
P2O5 <0.01
Total 100.26

Physical Properties

Property Value
Mean particle size 82.25 μm
Median particle size 35.97 μm
Specific gravity 3.071
Bulk density 1.815 g/cm3

OB-1/CHENOBI Olivine Bytownite

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Simulant Name: OB-1/CHENOBI Olivine Bytownite
Availability: May Be Available
Fidelity: Standard
Developed By: Jim Richard (EVC) (NORCAT), and University of New Brunswick (John Spray, Melissa Battler). All intellectual property rights reside with MDA and both OB-1 and CHENOBI are trademarks of MDA.
Available From: MDA (pending further production)

Currently Deltion Innovations is no longer in operation, and MDA has bought the rights to their lunar simulants. They are looking into the process of producing more OB-1 in the near future (and possibly Chenobi down the road).

Publications: Battler, M. M., and J. G. Spray (2009), The Shawmere anorthosite and OB-1 as lunar highland regolith simulants. Planetary and Space Science, 57, 2128-2131.

Battler, M. (2008), Development of an Anorthositic Lunar Regolith Simulant: OB-1. Master’s thesis

Battler, M., D. Boucher, J. Richard, J. Spray, 2005. “Developing Lunar Regolith Simulants”, CSEW5

Richard, J., L. Sigurdson, M.M. Battler, 2007. “OB-1 Lunar Highlands Physical Simulant Evolution and Production”, 2007 Lunar and Dust Regolith Simulant Workshop.

Battler, M., J. Richard, D. Boucher., J.Spray, 2006. “Progress Report: Development and Production of Lunar Highland Regolith Simulant OB1”, 3rd Annual Planetary and Terrestrial Mining Sciences Symposium

Richard, J., D. Boucher, M. Battler, 2006. “Lunar Physical Simulant – Evolution, Production and Use, Space Resources Roundtable VIII

The OB-1 lunar highlands simulant was developed using internal research funds by NORCAT and EVC. It consists of a mixture of 58% Shawmere Anorthosite (from a quarry in Foleyet, Ontario) and 42% fayalitic olivine slag glass. These materials were crushed to achieve a particle size distribution similar to the Apollo 16 samples 64501 and 64500. A small amount of OB-1 remains at Deltion Innovations.

A modified version referred to as CHENOBI (or Chenobi) used plasma-melted Shawmere Anorthosite for the glassy component instead of the olivine slag. Deltion contracted with Zybek Advanced Products to produce plasma slag. The Canadian Space Agency currently has approximately 500kg remaining from a 1 tonne lot purchased. NASA Glenn Research Center purchased 400kg and reportedly has 100kg pristine material remaining.

Sigurdson, L., J. Richard, 2009. “CHENOBI: CHemically ENhanced OB-1 Lunar Highlands Regolith Physical Simulant”, 6th Annual Planetary and Terrestrial Mining Sciences Symposium.
Sigurdson, L., J. Richard, 2009. “Development of CHENOBI Lunar Highlands Regolith Simulant”, 2009 Lunar Regolith Simulant Workshop
Sigurdson, L., J. Richard, 2007. “OB-1 Lunar Highlands Regolith Physical Simulant”, 4th Annual Planetary and Terrestrial Mining Sciences Symposium


OB-1 from Rickman et al. 2013:

Chenobi from Rickman et al. 2013: