Planetary Simulant Database

Free Resource for Regolith Simulant Information


Mineral Abundance (%)
Plagioclase ?
Olivine ?
Pyroxene ?
Ilmenite ?

Bulk Chemistry

Oxide Wt.%
SiO2 42.8
TiO2 6.77
Al2O3 12.1
FeO 16.3
MnO 0.22
MgO 6.19
CaO 11.1
Na2O 2.22
K2O 0.20
P2O5 0.04
Total 97.9

Physical Properties

Property Value
Specific gravity 3.2
Bulk density 1.5-2.2 g/cm3
Friction Angle 41.4-29.8°
Cohesion 0.1-1.5 kPa

MLS 1/1P Minnesota Lunar Simulant

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Simulant Name: MLS-1/1P
Current Status: Not Available
Fidelity: Standard
Developed By: University of Minnesota
Available From: N/A
Publications: Weiblen, P. W., and K. Gordon (1988), Characteristics of a Simulant for Lunar Surface Materials. Second Conference on Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century, p.254.

MLS-1 and -1P were developed as general use, high-Ti mare simulants. They were derived from a basaltic sill in an abandoned quarry in Duluth, MN. The MLS-1 version is glass-free, but the -1P variant was produced by passing a portion of the raw material through a plasma furnace to form glass. The chemistry of MLS-1 compared favorably to Apollo 11 soil 10084.

The same group also produced the MLS-2 highlands simulant. None of the MLS simulants seem to be currently available.


Photographs of (left to right) MLS-1 bulk, MLS-1 coarse fraction, and MLS-1P glass. From Johnson et al. 2013: