Planetary Simulant Database

Free Resource for Regolith Simulant Information


Component Wt.%
Pyroxene 32.8
Glass-rich basalt 32.0
Anorthosite 19.8
Olivine 11.1
Ilmenite 4.3

Bulk Chemistry

Because LMS-1 is a mineralogical standard, the bulk chemistry of simulants created from the standard will differ depending on the crystal chemistry of the source minerals used. Below, we report the latest analysis for the production version of LMS-1.

Oxide Wt.%
SiO2 42.81
TiO2 4.62
Al2O3 14.13
Cr2O3 0.21
FeOT 7.87
MnO 0.15
MgO 18.89
CaO 5.94
Na2O 4.92
K2O 0.57
P2O5 0.44
SO3 0.11
Total 100.00

Physical Properties

Particle size range: 0-1 mm
Mean particle size (by volume): 63 μm
Bulk density*: 1.56 g/cm3
*Note that bulk density is not an inherent property and depends on the level of compaction

Particle size distribution:

LMS-1 Lunar Mare Simulant

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Simulant Name: LMS-1 Lunar Mare Simulant
Current Status: May Be Available
Fidelity: Standard
Developed By: University of Central Florida
Available From: CLASS Exolith Lab
Spec Sheet: LMS-1 Spec Sheet (PDF)
Publications: N/A

The LMS-1 Lunar Mare Simulant has been developed by the CLASS Exolith Lab. It is a high-fidelity, mineral-based simulant appropriate for a generic or average mare location on the Moon. The simulant is not made of a single terrestrial lithology, but accurately captures the texture of lunar regolith by combining both mineral and rock fragments (i.e., polymineralic grains) in accurate proportions.

The particle size distribution of the simulant is targeted to match that of typical Apollo soils. Currently we do not simulate agglutinates or nanophase iron, and it has not been demonstrated that doing so is necessary to capture the major properties of lunar regolith with simulants.


Photograph of LMS-1:

Image of Chang’e 3 landing site on Mare Imbrium:

SEM micrograph of LMS-1 (courtesy of NASA JSC):