Planetary Simulant Database

Free Resource for Regolith Simulant Information


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Bulk Chemistry

Oxide Wt.%
SiO2 48.00
TiO2 1.67
Al2O3 15.30
FeO 6.64
Fe2O3 4.75
MgO 9.64
CaO 8.38
Na2O 3.42
K2O 1.52
MnO 0.17
P2O5 0.33
S 0.01
Total 99.83

Physical Properties

Property Value
Specific gravity 2.9
Internal friction angle 44.91°
Cohesion 1.85 kPa
Recompression index 0.0043

KLS-1 Korea Lunar Simulant

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Simulant Name: KLS-1 Korea Lunar Simulant
Availability: May Be Available
Fidelity: Standard
Developed By: Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology
Available From: N/A
Publications: Ryu, B.-H., C.-C. Wang, and I. Chang (2018), Development and Geotechnical Engineering Properties of KLS-1 Lunar Simulant. Journal of Aerospace Engineering, 31, 04017083.

KLS-1 is a low-Ti mare simulant developed at the Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology. This simulant uses an instrusive basaltic material from Cheorwon, after sampling a number of basalts throughout Korea to choose the best one based on chemistry. Apollo 14 sample 14163 was used as a reference.

The raw basalt was powdered and sieved to a number of size fractions, then re-combined to achieve an accurate particle size distribution. Ryu et al. (2018) claim that this size distribution is more accurate than JSC-1 and FJS-1.

Ryu et al. also cite the cost effectiveness of KLS-1, and describe plans to scale up with capacities of 1 ton per 8 hours. It isn’t clear if KLS-1 is yet available to the community or what the timescale of production is.


Photograph and SEM image of the KLS-1 simulant from Ryu et al. 2018: