Planetary Simulant Database

Free Resource for Regolith Simulant Information


This mineralogy is for JSC-1A, the most recent iteration of this simulant

Mineral Abundance (%)
Glass 49.3
Plagioclase 37.1
Olivine 9.0
Cr-spinel 1.1
Ti-magnetite 0.4
K-silicate 1.4
Sulfide 1.0
Albite 0.3
Quartz 0.2
Chlorite 0.1
Apatite <0.1
Clinopyroxene <0.1
Ilmenite <0.1

Bulk Chemistry

This bulk chemistry is also for JSC-1A.

Oxide Wt. %
SiO2 47.4
TiO2 1.56
Al2O3 16.1
Fe2O3 11.4
MnO 0.18
MgO 7.72
CaO 10.5
Na2O 2.94
K2O 0.80
P2O5 0.59
Cr2O3 0.03
LOI 0.3
Total 99.6

Physical Properties

These properties are from the original JSC-1 simulant.

Property Value
Mean grain size 81-105 μm
Median grain size 98-117 μm
Specific gravity 2.9
Internal friction angle 45°
Cohesion 1.0 kPa

Johnson Space Center JSC-1/1A/1AF/1AC/2A

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Simulant Name: JSC-1/1A/1AF/1AC/2A Johnson Space Center
Availability: May Be Available
Fidelity: Standard
Developed By: Dave McKay & James Carter
Available From: N/A
Publications: McKay, D. S. et al. (1994), JSC-1: A New Lunar Soil Simulant. Engineering, Construction, and Operations in Space IV American Society of Civil Engineers, 857-866

Sibille, L. et al. (2006), Lunar Regolith Simulant Materials: Recommendations for Standardization, Production, and Usage. NASA Technical Reports 2006-214605

The JSC-1 series is one of the best known simulants ever produced. It is a general use, low-Ti mare simulant made from volcanic ash in the San Francisco volcano field near Flagstaff, AZ. It contains a high glass fraction and is chemically similar to Apollo sample 14163. The ash was mined from a commercial cinder quarry and used to make the original JSC-1. 21.7 tons were produced by Dr. James Carter at a mill in Arizona.

After the original JSC-1 batch ran out, Dr. Carter produced another 16 tons of JSC-1A (a clone of JSC-1) for NASA at a custom facility, an effort coordinated through an SBIR grant to Orbitec. Another 15 tons of JSC-1A and 100 kg of JSC-1AF (the finest 20% fraction of JSC-1A, mean particle size 25 μm) were produced for Orbitec. A prototype of JSC-1A-VF (very fine) was also produced. As of 2018, the Orbitec simulant website is offline and JSC-1A is no longer commercially available. However, there are references to a JSC-2A produced by Zybek that was a replica of JSC-1A.


Photograph of JSC-1A: