Planetary Simulant Database

Free Resource for Regolith Simulant Information


Simulant variety Material
ES-1 Stjernoy Nepheline Syenite S7
ES-2 Red Hill 110 silica sand
ES-3 Leighton Buzzard DA30 silica sand

Bulk Chemistry

No data available

Physical Properties

Property ES-1 ES-2 ES-3
Grain size <3-30 μm 60-250 μm 300-800 μm
Grain density (g/cm3) 2.32 2.56 2.6

ES-X Mars Simulants

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Simulant Name: ES-X Mars Simulants
Availability: May Be Available
Fidelity: Basic
Developed By: ESA
Available From: N/A
Publications: Brunskill, C. et al. (2011), Characterisation of martian soil simulants for the ExoMars rover testbed. Journal of Terramechanics, 48, 419-438.

Gouache, T. P. et al. (2011), Soil simulant sourcing for the ExoMars rover testbed. Planetary and Space Science, 59, 779-787.

The ES-X line of simulants are a series of purely geotechnical simulants used for hardware testing in the ExoMars rover testbed. They were developed from commercial sand products with a variety of grain sizes: ES-1 is fine dust, ES-2 is a fine aeolian sand, and ES-3 is a coarse sand.

The source materials may still be available from commercial suppliers so that other users could reproduce the same geotechnical properties of the simulants.


Photographs of (from left to right) ES-1, ES-2 and ES-3, modified from Brunskill et al. 2011