Planetary Simulant Database

Free Resource for Regolith Simulant Information


Mineralogy (%) CUMT-1 simulant
Pyroxene 19.48
Plagioclase 41.02
Ilmenite 1.65
Olivine 1.66
Glass 1.32
Magnetite 30.53
Hematite 1.03
Others 3.31
Total 100.00

Bulk Chemistry

Oxide Wt. %
SiO2 42.68
TiO2 1.31
Al2O3 15.2
Cr2O3 0
FeO 26.76
MgO 3.44
MnO 0.11
CaO 5.62
Na2O 3.23
K2O 0
P2O5 0.13
SO2 0.03
Others and LOI 1.50
Total 100.01

Physical Properties

Specific gravity, bulk density and void ratio

Parameters Specific gravity Bulk density (g/cm3) Void ratio
rmin rmax emin emax
CUMT-1 simulant 3.45 1.47 2.44 0.41 1.35

Shear characteristics

Relative density Normal stress (kPa) Peak state Residual state Dilatancy angle (deg)
Cohesion (kPa) Friction angle (deg) Cohesion (kPa) Friction angle (deg)
80.0% 106-155 14.64 52.85 4.99 48.57 64.62
155-197 21.18 49.66 16.13 40.56 60.00
106-197 16.93 51.40 8.12 45.31 59.23

Compression index

Relative density Compression index Cc
30% 0.203
65% 0.109
80% 0.019

CUMT-1 Lunar Regolith Simulant

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Simulant Name: CUMT-1 lunar regolith simulant
Availability: Available
Fidelity: Standard
Developed By: China University of Mining and Technology
Available From: State Key Laboratory for Geomechanics and Deep Underground Engineering, China
Publications: Li R., Zhou G., Yan K., Chen J., Chen D., Cai S., Mo P.Q. Preparation and characterization of a specialized lunar regolith simulant for use in lunar low gravity simulation. International Journal of Mining Science and Technology, 2021: under revision.

The CUMT-1 lunar regolith simulant (China University of Mining and Technology Number One) was developed by reproducing the in-situ formation and fragmentation of the lunar matrix, which plays a key role in the irregular particle morphology. The raw materials of this simulant are basaltic volcanic scoria, ferroferric oxide and ammonium bicarbonate, and it belongs to low-Ti Mare simulant. CUMT-1 was designed to recover the properties of lunar regolith and simulate the lunar gravity by adopting the recently advanced GMMT method (refer to

CUMT-1 simulant can well simulate the particle geometry, physical and geotechnical properties of lunar regolith, and it is recommended to be used as an engineering-based or scientific-based simulant to study the geotechnical mechanics and engineering responses of lunar regolith. These applications include but are not limited to the strength, stiffness, deformation, failure, bearing capacity of lunar regoliths and regolith-structure interaction characteristics in hardware and verification testing, sample collection, drilling, ISRU, and ILRS. It can also be used to study the other mechanical behavior that is closely related to irregular particle morphology and lunar low gravity.

Images (from Li et al, 2021):

Preparation method:

Particle morphology: